企业党建
当前位置: 企业党建 企业党建 注释
《道念书》——培根
2015年05月26日 作者:佚名 滥觞:本站原创 点击:

澳门赌场澳门星际娱乐场会员卡

培根《道念书》澳门星际娱乐场会员卡 

王佐良师长教师译澳门星际娱乐场会员卡  

  
    念书足以怡情,足以博彩,足以少才。其怡情也,最见于独处幽居之时;其傅彩也,最见于放言高论当中;其长才也,最见于处世判事之际。练达之士虽能别离处置细事或逐个鉴别枝节,然纵观兼顾、全局筹谋,则舍勤学沉思者莫属。念书费时过多易惰,文彩藻饰太盛则矫,齐凭条则断事乃学究故态。念书补自然之不敷,经历又补念书之不敷,盖生成本领如同天然花卉,念书然后知怎样修剪移接;而书中所示,如没有以经历范之,则又大而无当。有一无所长者鄙念书,无知者羡念书,唯明智之士用念书,然书其实不以用途告人,用书之智不在书中,而正在书中,齐凭察看得之。念书时不成故意诘难作者,不成尽疑书上所行,亦不成只为寻章摘句,而应琢磨细思。书有可浅尝者,有可吞食者,少数则须品味消化。换言之,有只须读其部门者,有只须大致浏览者,少数则须全读,读时须聚精会神,废寝忘食。书亦可请人代读,与其所做择要,但只限题材较次或代价不高者,不然书经提炼如同火经蒸馏、淡而无味矣。

    念书使人充分,会商使人机警,条记使人精确。因而不常作笔记者须影象特强,不常讨论者须生成聪慧,不常念书者须欺世有术,初能蒙昧而显有知。读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,数学使人缜密,科学使人深入,伦理学使人持重,逻辑修辞之学使人善辩:凡是有所教,皆成性格。人之才智但有滞碍,无不可读恰当之书使之顺畅,一如身材百病,皆可借适宜之活动除之。滚球利睾肾,射箭利胸肺,快步利肠胃,骑术利思维,诸如此类。如智力没有集合,可令读数教,盖演题须聚精会神,稍有分离即须重演;如不克不及辨同,可令读经院哲学,盖是辈皆隐恶扬善之人;如不善求同,不善以一物阐证另外一物,可令读状师之檀卷。云云思维中凡有缺点,皆有特药可医。

   原文:

    STUDIES serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment, and disposition of business. For expert men can exe-cute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, come best, from those that are learned. To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules, is the humor of a scholar. They perfect nature, and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need proyning, by study; and studies themselves, do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience. Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them; for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation. Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them bothers; but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books, else distilled books are like common distilled waters, flashy things.


    Reading make a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. And therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit: and if he read little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to know, that he doth not. Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtitle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend. Abeunt studia in mores. Nay, there is no stand or impediment in the wit, but may be wrought out by fit studies; like as diseases of the body, may have appropriate exercises. Bowling is good for the stone and reins; shooting for the lungs and breast; gentle walking for the stomach; riding for the head; and the like. So if a man's wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away never so little, he must begin again. If his wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences, let him study the Schoolmen; for they are cymini sectors. If he be not apt to beat over matters, and to call up one thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study the lawyers' cases. So every defect of the mind, may have a special receipt.


政府部门网站
行业单元网站
水利厅曲网站
出名网站